The Great Goddess Hathor is the Mother, the Daughter, and the Wife of Ra. Like all the other Daughters of Ra, also Hathor is a manifestation of His Eye (the Right Eye), but, as it is said in this Sacred Hymn from Her Temple at Iunet testifying Her pre-eminence among all the Daughters of Ra, Hathor is the
“Female Horus-Ra, Venerable,
Female Sun, Queen of the Two Lands,
the Shining One Who illuminates the darkness,
the beloved Uraeus of “He Who shines like Gold”,
She Who shines with the Ba (the Soul) of Ra.
The Divine Youth (Ra) shone in the Lotus Flower at the time when He rose from the Primeval Waters of Nun, and an oozing fell from His eye, on His face, and then upon the sand, and a beautiful woman was born from it.
She Who shines like Gold, Her name is “Eye of Ra”,
among all His Daughters She is the One that Ra loves the most.
Iunet (Dendera) is Her in replacement of Iunu (Heliopolis);
the Creator begot Her in Heliopolis,
He gave to Her His own seat on Heaven,
He Who rules the entire cosmos from His Throne.
She is the One Who illuminates His eyes;
He (Ra, the Creator) doesn’t watch anyone before Her.
Queen of the Gods, Sovereign of manifold appearances,
She is Hathor the Great One, Lady of Iunet (Dendera),
Eye of Ra, Lady of Heaven,
Sovereign of all the Gods, She is the Mighty Maat,
She Who is in the House of the sistrum (Iunet, Dendera)”.
(Hymn to the Goddess Hathor from the Pronaos of Her Temple at Iunet, Dendera)
in fact all the Daughters of Ra like Sekhmet, Bastet, Tefnut, Mehyt, Uadjet, and Menhyt, are manifestations/forms/aspects of Hathor (as it is testified also by many myths, first of all the “Myth of the Heavenly Cow” also known as “the Myth of the Destruction of Mankind).
Hathor is also identified with the Udjat, the Left Eye, the Eye of Horus:
“I am Hathor Who brings Her Horus and Who proclaims Her Horus
(…) I am that Eye of Horus, the female messenger of the Sole Lord”
(from the Coffin Texts, spell 331)
“I am the Fiery Eye of Horus, Which went forth terrible,
Lady of Slaughter,
Who came into being in the Flame of the Sunshine,
to Whom Ra granted appearings in glory,
Whose children Ra-Atum made enduring.
What Ra said about Her:
‘Mighty is the fear of You,
Mighty is Your striking Power,
Great is Your Magic in the bodies of Your foes,
and the hostile ones have fallen on their faces because of You.
All human beings have been in the sleep of death because of You and through Your Power,
and those who shall see You shall be afraid of You in this vigorous form of Yours Which the Lord of the Enneads has given to You’,
so He spoke to me, so said the Lord of the Enneads of me.
I have become the Eye of Horus, and vice versa,
I am indeed She Who shoots, and vice versa,
I am She Who triumphs,
the Companion of Ra.”
(from the Coffin Texts, spell 316)
In Her aspect/manifestation of the “Great Celestial Cow”, the Goddess Hathor, the “Golden One”, is the mother of Ra and of the Sovereign (called and represented also as Her calf), connected with the creation of the cosmos, with the Netherworld and the afterlife.
The Seven Hathors are seven aspects/forms of the Goddess Hathor. They are the Goddesses of Fate: when a child born, they are there to pronounce its destiny.
In the “Houses of Eternity”(tombs) the Seven Hathors are represented as Cows together with the “Bull of the Netherworld”. Their red hair-ribbons have the power to protect from evil and dangerous spirits.
The Names of the Seven Hathors from the “Houses of Eternity”:
1. Lady of the universe
3. You from the Land of Silence
4. You from Khemmis
6. Bright red
7. Your name flourishes through skill
The Names of the Seven Hathors from Mythological Papyrii are:
1. Lady of the house of jubilation
2,3. Ladies of the west
4,5. Ladies of th east
6,7. Ladies of the sacred land
one of the four-faced Hathoric capitals of the Kiosk located within the sacred enclosure of the Temple of Mandulis at Talmis (ca. 50km south of Aswan, now called “Kalabsa”), Lower Kush/Nubia; above, an Uraeus standing inside a shrine and wearing the Solar Crown
- HATHOR AS THE COW-GODDESS:
scene from the wall of the eastern exterior colonnade of the “House of Birth” of the Temple of Isis at Philae, second register:
(from left to right) King Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos kneeling on the symbol of the Union of the Two Lands (lotus and papyrus entwined);
the Seven Hathor-Goddesses playing the tambourines before Isis and Hathor, both enthroned.