Manetho, fr 1 (from the Armenian version of eusebius, chronica):
“From the Egyptian History of Manetho, who composed his account in three books. These deal with the Gods, the Demigods, the Spirits of the Dead, and the mortal Kings who ruled Egypt down to darius, king of the persians:
(…)After the Gods, Demigods reigned (…),
and again another line of Kings held sway (…):
then came thirty more Kings of Memphis (…);
and then again ten Kings of This, (…).
There followed the rule of Spirits of the Dead and Demigods (…)”.
Osiris, together with Isis, reigned on Earth during the ancient times of the kingdom of the First Dynasty of Gods on Earth (corresponding to the Gods of the Ennead of Iunu-Heliopolis), many millennia before the I Dynasty of human Kings, as testified by the egyptian priest Manetho in His work “Aigyptiaka” (Manetho, fr. 1, from the Armenian version of eusebius, Chronica; Manetho, fr. 3, from syncellus) and by the royal annals (the Memphite Theology, the Palermo and the Cairo Stones, the Turin King List).
Osiris and Isis are the founders of human civilization, the lawgivers of mankind, and the Gods Who have taught to the human beings the sacred initiations and the highly sacred mysteries of the Divine. In fact Osiris is called “Onnophris” (wn-nfr), that means “He Who is always benevolent”.
“One of the first acts related of Osiris in His reign was to deliver the Egyptians from their destitute and brutish manner of living. This He did by showing them the fruits of cultivation, by giving them laws, and by teaching them to honour the Gods”.
[Plutarch, Isis and Osiris, I, 13]
The Bau (the “Souls”) of Pe and Nekhen are the Souls of the Divine Ancestors of Egypt: the Bau of Pe, falcon-headed, are connected with Horus and Their seat is the sacred city of Pe-Buto in the Delta (Lower Egypt), and the Bau of Nekhen, wolf-headed, are connected with Horus-Upuaut and Their sacred city is Nekhen-Hierakonpolis in Upper Egypt.
The Bau of Pe and Nekhen are also known as the “Shemsu-Hor”, the “Followers of Horus”: the egyptian priest Manetho in his work “Aigyptiaka” calls Them “Spirits of the Dead and Demigods”. They ruled Egypt before the I Dynasty (the Dynasty of Menes, the Horus Narmer) and after the Divine Dynasties (cfr. Manetho, “Aigyptiaka”; Turin Papyrus).
They ruled on Earth for 5813 years, just before the I Dynasty of human Kings (the Dynasty of Menes), from ca. 9113 BCE to ca. 3300 BCE. (Manetho, fr.1, from the armenian version of eusebius, Chronica).
The Four Sons of Horus, together with Horus Himself (in His two forms of Horus of Pe and Horus of Nekhen), are also known as the Bau of Pe (Horus, Imsety and Hapy) and of Nekhen (Horus, Qebehsenuef and Duamutef) [CLVII/CLVIII spells of the "Coffin Texts", and CXII/CXIII spells of the "Book of Coming Forth by Day"]: together with Horus of Pe-Buto, Imsety and Hapy are the Souls of the Divine Ancestors of Lower Egypt, instead Qebehsenuef and Duamutef (together with Horus of Nekhen) are the Souls of the Divine Ancestors of Upper Egypt.
detail from the east tower of the Pylon of the Double Temple of Haroeris and Sobek at Ombos:
-in the upper register,
at right, the King (Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos), followed by His Royal Ka (the spirit), leaves the Royal Palace, preceded by a Sem-Priest burning incense, and by personified Ankh-signs and Uas-scepters carrying the Royal Standards (associated to the Souls of Pe and Nekhen);
at left, the King enthroned on the royal palanquin carried in procession by the Souls of Pe-Bouto and by the Souls of Nekhen-Ierakonpolis (the scene is very damaged, now only the Souls of Nekhen, wolf-headed, are visible);
-in the lower register, Nile-Gods of Upper Egypt bringing offerings, and the Upper Egyptian Goddess Meret (at right)
bracelet of the Divine Queen Ahhotep, gold inlayed with lapis lazuli; (above) the falcon-headed Bau (Souls) of Pe (Buto) and the wolf-headed Bau of Nekhen (Hierakonpolis), kneeling (the kneeling jubilation position) and raising Their arms in jubilation at the presence of King Ahmose; (below) in the middle is represented a fan, flanked by two images of Geb enthroned wearing the Sekhemty (the Double Crown) at right, and the Deshret (the Red Crown) at left; Geb is holding the arm of Ahmose, kneeling, and pats His shoulder with His other hand, protecting and blessing Him; at the right and left extremities of the scene are represented the cartouches with the Royal names of King Ahmose; 1569-1545 BCE, from the burial equipment of the Divine Queen Ahhotep, mother of the two Great Kings Kamose and Ahmose
From the west wall of the Birth Room of the Ipet-Resyt Temple of Amon-Kamutef at Uaset (Diospolis Megale-Thebes), from “Le Temple de Luxor” by Gayet: Queen Mutemuia on the Lion Bed in the Childbirth Room. -in the upper register, in the middle, is represented Queen Mutemuia, enthroned, flanked by two Goddesses; the Goddesses on the first register are nine, and two Goddesses on the right hold the Ka (the vital spirit) of the future King (Amenhotep III). -in the middle register,under the throne of the Queen, are represented two Flame-Gods (with raised hands like the Ka-hieroglyph and holding the Ankh), flanked by protective Gods of birth (frog-headed, ram-headed, and human-headed) each holding two Ankh signs (the symbol of Life) -in the lower register, from left to right, the Bau (the souls) of Nekhen (wolf-headed) and Pe-Buto (falcon-headed) jubilating; the Uas-scepter of Power and Dominion, and the Knot of Isis; and on the right, Bes and the Goddess Thueris.
the Four Sons of Horus as deified Kings of Upper and Lower Egypt enthroned before an offering table and holding the Nekhakha-Flail in Their hands: at left (from left to right) are represented Qebehsenuef and Duamutef, both wearing the Hedjet (the White Crown of Upper Egypt) at right (from left to right) are represented Imsety and Hapy, both wearing the Deshret (the Red Crown of Lower Egypt).From the “House of Eternity” of King Ay, “the God’s Father” (XVIII Dynasty), Valley of the Kings (KV 23), West Uaset-Thebes
King Sethi I carried by the Souls of Nekhen-Hierakonpolis (wolf-headed, on the right) and by the Souls of Pe-Buto (falcon-headed, on the left) in triumphal procession upon the Royal Palanquin; on the left, Ramses II as IunMutef Priest censing before the Royal Procession; detail from the Chapel of King Sethi I in the “Great Temple” of Abydos
scene from the west wall of the chapel G (room III) of the”Temple of Millions of Years” of King Ramses II at Abydos:
the sacred bark of the King drawn by the Souls of Pe (falcon-headed, below) and by the Souls of Nekhen (above). Behind it there is a Goddess.
On the sacred bark is represented King Ramses II, enthroned inside a shrine, and behind Him there is a Goddess (probably Isis); before the King there are the Two Meret-Goddesses of Upper and Lower Egypt making adorations to Him; on the bow is represented Upuaut in His form of sphinx with the Uraeus.
the King, crowned with the Hedjet (the “White Crown”) making adorations to Horus (at left, not visible in the photo); at right, the Bau (the “Souls”) of Pe (in the upper register) and Nekhen (in the lower register) in the kneeling jubilation position;
from the Temple of Horus at Behdet
Temple of Isis at Philae, scene from the entrance-gate of the west tower of the First Pylon leading to the “House of Birth”, interior, west side, second register:
(from left to right) the King, Ptolemy VI Philometor, making adorations and offering wine, a double representation of the King in the kneeling jubilation position together with the Souls of Pe-Buto (falcon-headed, above) and the Souls of Nekhen-Hierakonpolis (wolf-headed, below) making adorations before Hathor, Horus son of Isis, and Arensnuphis (Jrj-ḥms-nfr). From Lepsius, “Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien”, IV-26
scene related to the “Beautiful Feast of the Valley”, detail from the south interior wall, western half, of the Great Hypostyle Hall of the Great Temple of Amon-Ra at Ipet-Sut (the Precinct of Amon-Ra at Uaset-Thebes):
King Ramses II (followed by His Ka-spirit) making adorations and censing before the divine bark of Amon-Ra carried by the Souls of Pe-Buto (falcon-headed, at left), by the King Himself acting as High Priest of Amon-Ra (at the centre), and by the Souls of Nekhen-Hierakonpolis (wolf-headed, at right).
scene concerning the rituals of the “Net Hunting” from the east wall of the Corridor of the Bull in the “Great Temple” of King Sethi I at Abydos:
King Ramses II (at right), Horus, Khnum, a falcon-headed God (representing the Souls of Pe-Buto), and a wolf-headed God (representing the Souls of Nekhen-Hierakonpolis) pulling the ritual clapnet with captured fowls