Four Sons of Horus

the Four Sons of Horus as deified Kings of Upper and Lower Egypt seated before an offering table: (from left to right) Qebehsenuef and Duamutef as deified Kings of Upper Egypt; Imsety and Hapy as deified Kings of Lower Egypt. From the “House of Eternity” of King Ay, “the God’s Father” (XVIII Dynasty), Valley of the Kings (KV 23), West Uaset (Diospolis Megale-Thebes)

 

The Four Sons of Horus are the children and the souls of Horus. They are also called “friends of the King” and “sons of Osiris”, and are four of the “Seven Blessed Ones”, the Seven Spirits (Akhu) of the entourage of Anubis. The Four Sons of Horus are the protectors of the internal organs, each one of Them is associated with a cardinal point and is guarded by one of the funerary Goddesses as “Tutelary Deity”:

Imsety (human-headed) guards the liver, is aligned with the South, and is protected by Isis;
Hapi (baboon-headed) guards the lungs, is aligned with the North, and is protected by Nephthys;
Duamutef (jackal-headed) guards the stomach, is aligned with the East, and is protected by Neith;
Qebehsenuef (hawk-headed) guards the intestines, is aligned with the West, and is protected by Serqet

 

Osiris (wearing the Atef-Crown and holding the Flail, the Uas-scepter, the Heqa-scepter, and the Ankh) and the Four Sons of Horus; from right to left, Imsety, Hapi, Qebehsenuf, and Duamutef (not completely visible in the picture), each holding the Ankh and the Uas-Scepter;
drawing by Nina de Garis Davies, detail from the “House of Eternity” of NebAmon and Ipuky (1400–1352 BCE) at Uaset-Thebes.

 

mummiform figures of the Four Sons of Horus (from left to right, Duamutef, Qebehsenuef, Hapi, Imsety) and Anubis (to the right);painted and gessoed wood; ca. 715-30 BCE, now in the Metropolitan Museum of Art…

 

the Four Sons of Horus standing on the top of an open lotus flower;
from right to left,
Imsety (human-headed), Hapi (baboon-headed), Duamutef (jackal-headed), and Qebehsenuef (falcon-headed).
Detail from the south wall of the South Chapel of the Temple of Hathor and Maat at West Uaset-Thebes

 

the Four Sons of Horus standing on the top of an open lotus flower before the throne of the Great God Osiris;  from the “House of Eternity” (TT255, Valley of the Nobles, West Diospolis Megale, Thebes) of the Noble Roy, “Royal Scribe in the Estates of Amon” (His wife was called Nebtawy, and She was a Chantress of Amon) during the reign of King Horemheb

 

 

the Four Sons of Horus (all human-headed) standing on the top of the open lotus flower that rises from the base (that is the symbol of Maat, Righteousness and Truth) of the throne of Osiris;
detail from the “House of Eternity” of the Royal Prince KhaemUaset, son of King Ramses III, QV44, West Uaset-Thebes

 

 

the four Sons of Horus, each holding a mace and a knife: (from left to right) Qebehsenuef (hawk-headed),  Duamutef (jackal/wolf-headed, holding in His right also the Ankh),  Hapi (baboon-headed), Imsety (human-headed). From the Temple of Horus at Behdet

 

winged Udjat-Eyes with Uraei and Ankh-signs protecting three of the Four Sons of Horus, each holding the Heqa-scepter in the left and the Nekhakha-flail with the Ankh in the right: (from left to right) Qebehsenuef (hawk-headed), Duamutef (jackal-headed), and Imsety (human-headed) In the upper register, a row of Uraei and feathers (the symbol of Righteousness and Truth)   from the outer coffin of Taywheryt, wife of the High Priest of Amon-Ra at Uaset, Masaharta, XXI Dynasty, Uaset (Diospolis Megale/Thebes)

the Four Sons of Horus (all mummiform) encircled by a protective sacred serpent; from right to left, Imsety (human-headed), Hapi (baboon-headed), Duamutef (jackal-headed), and Qebehsenuef (falcon-headed).
Scene from the “Book of Coming Forth by Day” of Lady Heruben, Chantress of Amon-Ra, XXI Dynasty; now in the cairo museum…
 

 

King Ramses III with Hapi (at left) and Qebehsenuef, two of the Four Sons of Horus From the “House of Eternity” of Prince Amonherkhepshef, son of King Ramses III, QV55, West UasetThebes

 

 the Four Sons of Horus enthroned:  from left to right, Qebehsenuef (hawk-headed), Duamutef (jackal-headed), Hapi (baboon-headed), and Imsety (human-headed); on the right is the Goddess Nephthys. From the Chapel of Sokar-Osiris in the Temple of Hathor at Iunet

 

Lady MeresiAmon, Singer of the God Amon, giving offerings to Osiris and the “Four Sons of Horus” (from right to left, after Osiris: Imseti, Hapi, Qebehsenuef, and Duamutef); XXV Dynasty, ca. 715-656 BCE

 

detail of the outer coffin of Henettawy, Lady of the House and Chantress of Amon-Ra (Dynasty XXI, ca. 990–930 bc), now in the Metropolitan Museum…
-in the two scenes of the upper register, Henettawy playing the sistrum and making adorations to Osiris;
-in the lower register, the Four Sons of Horus: on the left, Imsety (human-headed) and Qebehsenuef (hawk-headed); on the right, Duamutef (jackal-headed) and Hapi (baboon-headed)

 

lineshroud with a representation of the Great God Osiris wearing the Atef-Crown, flanked by Isis and the Sun on the left, and by Nephthys and the Moon on the right; in the middle register are represented the Four Sons of Horus (from left to right Duamutef, Imsety, Qebehsenuef and Hapi); in the lower register on the right, Anubis performing the sacred rites for Osiris; dated to the graeco-roman age, now in the Museum of Lyon…

 

Faience amulet pectoral featuring a winged Scarab and the Four Sons of Horus- from left: Imsety, Duamutef, Qebehsenuef and Hapi; 26th Dynasty, ca. 664- 525 BCE

 

detail from the “Book of Coming Forth by Day” (the so-called “Book of the Dead”), papyrus of Neferini: the Four Sons of Horus, Anubis and Osiris, Isis and Nephthys, and Hathor (in Her form of sacred cow); IV/I century BCE, now in the Neues Museum, Berlin

 

 Temple of Horus at Behdet, detail from the eastern tower of the Pylon, II register, first scene:
Horus of Behdet (wearing the Double Crown), and the pair of Imseti and Hapi (two of the Four Sons of Horus)

 

-IMSETY-

King Ramses III and Prince Amonherkhepeshef (at left) making salutations and adorations to Imsety, one of the Four Sons of Horus; from the “House of Eternity” of Prince Amonherkhepeshef, son of King Ramses III, QV55, West Uaset, Diospolis Megale-Thebes

 

Imseti enthroned, holding the Ankh and the Uas-scepter;
detail from the Chapel of Sokar-Osiris in the Temple of Hathor at Iunet (Dendera)

 

Imsety, one of the Four Sons of Horus, wearing an Uraeus on His head and holding the Ankh (the symbol of Life); from the “House of Eternity” of NakhtAmon, Valley of The Nobles, TT335, West Uaset, Diospolis Megale-Thebes NakhtAmon lived in the time of King Ramses II; he was a sculptor in the “Seat of Truth” (the Valley of the Kings) and Uab-Priest of the deified King Amenhotep I; son of Piay who, like himself, was a sculptor in the “Valley of the Kings”, and of the lady Neferetkhau , “Lady of the House”. NakhtAmon’ s wife is Nebuemsheset, daughter of Pached and of the Lady Makhai 

 

-HAPI-

Hapi (baboon-headed) enthroned, holding the Ankh and the Uas-scepter; on the throne of Hapi is represented the Lotus flower and two buds rising from the water;
detail from the Chapel of Sokar-Osiris in the Temple of Hathor at Iunet (Dendera)

 

Hapi (baboon-headed) holding a mace and a knife; Hapi protects the lungs, is aligned with the North, and is protected by Nephthys.
Detail from the Temple of Horus at Behdet

 

Hapi (baboon-headed), one of the Four Sons of Horus, wearing an Uraeus on His head and holding the Ankh (the symbol of Life);
from the “House of Eternity” of NakhtAmon, Valley of The Nobles, TT335, West Uaset-Thebes. NakhtAmon lived in the time of King Ramses II; he was a sculptor in the “Seat of Truth” (the Valley of the Kings) and Uab-Priest of the deified King Amenhotep I
 

 

Hapi (baboon-headed), honey-colored wax with dark amber varnish;
funerary equipment, dated to the 1000-900 BCE; now in the Cleveland Museum of Art…

 

-DUAMUTEF-

King Ramses III before the jackal headed God Duamutef, one of the Four Sons of Horus;  from the “House of Eternity” of the Prince Amonherkhopeshef, son of Ramses III, Valley of the Queens, West Uaset (Diospolis Megale-Thebes)

 

detail of Duamutef, jackal-headed, one of the Four Sons of Horus; from the “House of Eternity” of the Prince Amonherkhepeshef, son of King Ramses III, West Uaset, Diospolis Megale-Thebes 

 

Duamutef (jackal-headed) enthroned, holding the Ankh and the Uas-scepter.
On the throne of Duamutef is represented the symbol of the Union of the Two Lands, and below it there is a row of Rekhyt-birds in adoration standing on ‘neb’-baskets.
Detail from the Chapel of Sokar-Osiris in the Temple of Hathor at Iunet (Dendera)

 

Duamutef (human-headed), one of the Four Sons of Horus, wearing the Nemes with the Uraeus and holding the Ankh (the symbol of Life);
from the “House of Eternity” of NakhtAmon, Valley of The Nobles, TT335, West Uaset-Thebes. NakhtAmon lived in the time of King Ramses II; he was a sculptor in the “Seat of Truth” (the Valley of the Kings) and Uab-Priest of the deified King Amenhotep I

 

faience pectoral amulet of Duamutef (jackal-headed, mummiform) holding the Flail; Duamutef protects the stomach, is aligned with the East, and is protected by Neith.
From Iunet/Dendara, 380–332 BCE; now in the Museum of Fine Arts of Boston…

 

the Goddess Neith protecting the Canopic Shrine of King TutAnkhAmon; in front of Her is represented Duamutef, one of the Four Sons of Horus

 

-QEBEHSENUEF-

Prince Montuherkhepeshef (a son of King Ramses IX) making offerings to Qebehsenuef, one of the sons of Horus; from the “House of Eternity” of the Prince Montuherkhepeshef (KV 19), Valley of the Kings, West Uaset (Diospolis Megale-Thebes)

 

Qebehsenuf (falcon-headed) enthroned, holding the Ankh and the Uas-scepter.
On the throne of Qebehsenuf is represented the symbol of the Union of the Two Lands, and two enemies of the Gods with the arms bound behind the back.
Detail from the Chapel of Sokar-Osiris in the Temple of Hathor at Iunet (Dendera)

 

Qebehsenuef, falcon-headed, one of the Four Sons of Horus, wearing an Uraeus on His head and holding the Ankh (the symbol of Life); from the “House of Eternity” of NakhtAmon, Valley of The Nobles, TT335, West Uaset, Diospolis Megale-Thebes NakhtAmon lived in the time of King Ramses II; he was a sculptor in the “Seat of Truth” (the Valley of the Kings) and Uab-Priest of the deified King Amenhotep I

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