Atum, Ra and Khepry


“Ra-Harakhty-Atum, Lord of the two Lands of On-Heliopolis, Khepry” (falcon-headed, wearing the Solar Crown encircled by an Uraeus, and holding the Ankh) in His sacred barque.
Detail from the “House o Eternity” (TT1) of Sennedjem,
 West ‘Uaset’-Thebes



(click on the image to open the link)


-Ra as a falcon-headed man
-Anthropomorphic form of Ra
-Zoomorphic and combined forms of Ra
-The Sun with the forms of Ra

Iconographic index:

I part: Ra as a falcon-headed man

II part: Ra in anthropomorphic form
-Ra in His form of Divine Child

III part: Ra in His form of sacred falcon
-Ra as a human-headed falcon
-Ra as a ram-headed falcon

IV part: Ra in His form of sacred cat
-Ra as a cat-headed man

V part: Ra as a lion-headed man
-Ra in His form of hieracosphinx

VI part: Ra in His sacred forms of calf and bull

VII part: Ra in His forms of sacred baboon and baboon-headed man

VIII part: Ra in His form of sacred serpent

IX part: Ra as a crocodile-headed man
-Ra in His form of sacred crocodile

X part: Ra as a ram-headed man
-the “flesh of Ra” in the “Books of the Netherworld”
-Ra in His form of four-faced ram

XI part: the Sun with the forms of Ra

XII part: “The Litany of Ra”:
-the ‘Prologue’ of the “Great Litany”
-the forms of Ra in the “Great Litany”
-the forms of Ra in the “Little Litany”


from the “House of Eternity” of the Noble Kheruef [TT192]

(translation from “Hymns, Prayers” by J.L.Foster)

‘Praising of Ra in the morning as He rises in the Horizon of the Sky.
By the Noble, Mayor, Confidant of Horus, Lord of the Palace, Steward of the estate of the Great Royal Wife (Queen Tiye), Chief Herald of the King (Amenhotep III), Kheruef whose word is right and true, who says:

“Hail to You!
Ra in Your rising, concealed as Amon in Your going to rest.
You shine down from Your Mother’s back
appearing gloriously as King of the Divine Ennead.
Nut gives greeting at Your appearance,
the arms of Maat protect You night and day.

You traverse the sky with joyful heart,
and the Lake of the Two Knives is at peace,
for the rebel is felled, his arms fettered,
hacked with knives, his backbone broken, unable to walk.
Your enemies are down on their field of slaughter.

The hearts of the Gods delight to see You in the Day Bark,
and You shall have a following breeze.
The Night Bark has destroyed him who attacked it.
You traverse Your Two Heavens triumphantly,
with the Nine Great Gods accompanying You.
Your mother, Nut, embraces You,
and all is flourishing wherever You have been.”

The Royal Scribe, Chief Herald of the King, Steward of the Great Royal Wife, Kheruef whose word is right and true, who says:

“Let me worship You, with Your Beauty in my heart,
and may Your Power grow fruitful in my breast”


from the “House of Eternity” of the Noble Kheruef [TT192]

(translation from “Hymns, Prayers” by J.L.Foster)

‘Worshipping of Ra when He goes to rest as He Who is alive in the Western Horizon of the Sky, by the Nobleman, Mayor, and Sole Friend who draws near his Lord, who is in the heart of Horus, Lord of the Palace, First Royal Herald, Royal scribe, Steward, Kheruef, whose word is right and true, who says:

“Hail to You, Lord of Eternity, Atum, great forever!
You have joined with the Horizon of the Sky.
Glorious in the West as Atum of the Evening,
come in Your power, freed of the rebel.

You rule the sky as Ra,
reaching both Your heavens with gladness in Your heart.
You have driven away the clouds and tempest
to go down within the body of Your mother Naunet,
while Your father, Nun, gives greeting, the Gods of the Western Mountain praise, and those in the Netherworld rejoice without ceasing,
for They see Their Lord of the wide-striding footsteps, Amon-Ra, Ruler of all mankind.

Welcome in peace, O You Who cross the Two Lands!
You have gone to the arms of the Western Mountain,
and Your Majesty has spent the allotted time
moored according to custom,
with the arms of Your mother as a protection around You,
and the Guardians defeating the rebel against You.

The Western Souls draw You along the path in the Sacred Land
to brighten the faces of the Netherworld,
to hear the entreaty of Him in the coffin,
and raise up those placed on their side in the grave.

You feed on Righteousness and Truth beside the one who brings it,
refresh Your nostrils with what is in it,
and are raised by it to a splendid throne.

You care for those who become Gods, Who arrive yonder,
Their vital fires renewed completely by Your actions,
coming as the Solar Orb, Controller of the Sky,
yet helping to rule in the Realm of the Dead,
You distribute Your splendor throughout the Netherworld,
shining brilliantly for those in the great darkness:
those in the dephts of the grave are grateful,
and they worship You.

You reach out to them in Your guise of ‘He Who awakens uninjured’,
Who spends the night being conceived for the day,
at dawn reborn as the Divine Youth,
the Colorful Easterner amid His creation,
Who appears from His mother’s womb without ceasing,
going to rest within Her until His appointed time . . . . ”

….Kheruef . . . . who says:

“Hail to You Who are Ra in His rising
and Atum at His going to rest.
Let me be one favored by You
as I watch Your beauty each day:
let me take the towrope of the Night Barque
and sail with You each night.”


from the XV chapter of the “Book of Coming forth by day” of the scribe Ani; part I
(translation from “Hymns, prayers, and songs” by J.L.Foster)

Adoration of Ra in His rising from the Horizon until He comes to rest in life.
Words spoken by the Osiris the scribe Ani:

“Be praised, O Ra, in Your rising, Atum-Harakhty.
Let Your beauties and perfections be worshiped with my eyes,
and let Your sunlight come to be with my breast.
May You proceed in Your own peace in the Night bark,
Your heart rejoicing in a following breeze within the Day bark.
How delightful is the crossing of the skies among the peaceful dead,
with all Your enemies fallen.
The unwearying stars give praise to You,
the indestructible stars adore You.
You Who go to rest in the Horizon of the Western Mountains,
beautiful as the Sun each day,
beautiful, enduring, as my Lord.”


from the XV spell of the “Book of Coming Forth by Day”, Saite version; – part II
(translation from “Testi religiosi dell’antico Egitto” by E. Bresciani)

-To be said by Osiris-N (“N” stands for the name of the dead identified with Osiris) in extolling Ra-Harakhty (Ra-Horus of the Two Horizons), the Lord of the Eternal Return:

“Hail to Thee, Ra-Harakhty,
Who came into being by Himself.
Beautiful One,
Thou risest in the Horizon,
Illuminator of the Two Lands with Thy rays.
All the Gods are rejoicing when They see Thee, the King of the Sky with the Lady of the Uraeus established on Thy head with the Crowns of Upper and Lower Egypt.
They take Their seat on Thy brow, while Thoth is established at the prow of Thy bark, punishing all Thy enemies,
and They Who are in the Netherworld are come forth at Thy departure to see this Thy beautiful Image.

I have come unto Thee, I am with Thee every day.
None can tread on me. My body becomes new through beholding Thy beauty, like the bodies of all Thy Favored Ones,
because I am one of those who were pleasing to Thee on Earth.
I have reached the Land of Endless Return, I have joined the Land of Changelessness: it is Thou Who hast alloted it to me, O my Lord Ra”


from the XV Spell of the “Book of Coming Forth by Day” – part III
(translation from “The Egyptian Book of the Dead” by T. G. Allen)

words to say:

Hail to Thee, Who art come as Atum and art become the Creator of the Gods.
Hail to Thee, Who art come as Soul of Souls, Sacred One Who is in the West.
Hail to Thee, Who art over all the Gods, Who illumines the NetherWorld with Thy beauty.
Hail to Thee, Who conveys the Blessed-Ones, Who rows, Who is in His Solar disk.
Hail to Thee, God greater that all the other Gods, Who dawns in the Sky, Who rules the NetherWorld.
Hail to Thee, God Who opens the NetherWorld, Who governs the double doors of the burial regions.
Hail to Thee, God Who is in His concealment, Who creates the NetherWorld by His radiance.
Hail to Thee, God greatest of all the Gods, Who judges in the God’s Domain.
Hail to Thee, Who art great and exalted, Whose enemies are fallen in their place of execution.
Hail to Thee, for Whom the impious are cut off, for Whom apophis has been annihilated.
Then the West will open to the Elder Horus, the Great One Who has cleft the Earth,
the Exalted One Who sets in the Mountain of the UnderWorld,
Who illumines the NetherWorld with His radiance and the Souls in their mysterious abode,
Who lights those who are before their cave,
Who has inflicted punishment on the punishable one,
for Thou annihilatest the enemies of the Gods.”


from the XV Spell of the “Book of Coming Forth by Day” – part IV
(translation from “The Egyptian Book of the Dead” by T. G. Allen)

Words to be said:
“Praise to Thee, God Who rises from Nun and illumines the Earth on the day He is born.
Thy Mother bears Thee anew on Her hand after Thou hast illumined all the circuit of the orb of the Sun.
Thou illuminest, O Great One, at Thy rising from Nun,
God Who created His Divine Company from the Primaeval Waters.
Thou makest festive Thy estates, guarded by Thy beauty.
Piled high is Thy fare of food offerings,
Greatly Dreaded One, Mightiest of the Mighty,
Whose seat is remote,
Majestic of appearance in the Night Bark,
Great of Dignity in the Day Bark.”



from the XV Spell of the “Book of Coming Forth by Day” – part V
(translation from “The Egyptian Book of the Dead” by T. G. Allen)

Words to be said:
“Hail to Thee, Who settest in the Region of Life (the NetherWorld), Atum, Father of the Gods.
When Thou hast joined Thy mother, the Nether Sky, Her arms receive Thee every day.
The image of Thy Majesty is within Sokar, while Thou rejoicest over Him Whom Thou hast loved, O Great One.
The Double Doors are opened for Thee in Thy Horizon at Thy setting towards the Earth to illuminate the West (the NetherWorld).
Thy rays penetrate the Earth to illumine the West, while the Gods Who dwell in the NetherWorld intone praise to Thee and beg to see Thee every day.
Thou causest the Gods to set in the Earth,
Thy Followers, They, Who are in Thy retinue,
O Soul holy of utterance,
Begetter of the Gods,
Who endued Himself with His unknown form,
Thou First-Born,
Great is He in His Mysteries.”


from the XV Spell of the “Book of Coming Forth by Day” – part VI
(translation from “The Egyptian Book of the Dead” by T. G. Allen)

“Praising Ra-Harakhty at His dawning in the Eastern Horizon of the Sky,
words to say:

‘Hail To Thee, Ra at Thy rising, Atum at Thy setting,
Beautiful One,
Thou dawnest,
Thou shinest on the back of Thy Mother, having dawned as King of the Ennead of the Gods.
Maat sprinkles water before Thee (in greeting),
Maat embraces Thee day and night,
the Two crews praise Thee day and night.
Thou traversest the Sky, Thy heart glad, the pool of the twin knives being inundated with joy over Thee.
Thy enemy is fallen, his arms bound,
knives have severed his vertebrae,
his head has been cut off, that punishable one, consigned to the fire is his corpse as that which exist not.
The Day Bark is regularly wafted by a fair wind, and the Night Bark has wiped out Her assailant.
Southerners and northerners, westerners and easterners draw Thee while praising Thee, Primeval One of the Two Lands, Atum-Harakhty.”


from the XV Spell of the “Book of Coming Forth by Day” – part VII
(translation from “The Egyptian Book of the Dead” by T. G. Allen)

‘Praising Khepry as He sets in the Region of Life (the West).
Words to say:“You have crossed the Sky,
You have touched the Earth,
You have filled the Sky with Sunshine.
The Two Sanctuaries have come to You bowing down, They give praise to You every day.
The Gods of the West (the NetherWorld) rejoice at Your beauty, They Whose seats are hidden praise You,
the Elders join You, They raise to You a shout of joy,
They Who are in the Horizon paddle for You, They Who are in the Night Boat row for You,
the Souls of the West worship You, They utter praise to You at the approaching of Your Majesty, saying:

‘Welcome, welcome, You having arrived in peace.
Praise to You, Joy to You, O Lord of the Sky, Ruler of the NetherWorld.’

Your mother the Nether Sky has embraced You,
She sees Her son in You as the Lord of Awe, Great of Dignity, when You set in the Region of Life in the nest,
Your father the God of the Primaeval Mound lifts You, indeed He wraps His arms around You, while You exist and are Divine in the Earth.”



from the Great Harris Papyrus
(translation from “Ancient Records of Egypt” by J. H. Breasted)

words of King Ramses III:
“I tell the prayers, praises, adorations, and laudations, mighty deeds, benefactions, which I did for You, in Your Presence, O Great Lord.”

“The prayers, praises, laudations, might deeds and benefactions, which King UserMaatRa MeryAmon (Ramses III), Life, Power, Health, the Great God, did for His father Atum, Lord of the Two Lands of On-Heliopolis, Ra-Harakhty, Iusaas, Hathor Nebethetep, and for all the Gods of On-Heliopolis”.

Said King UserMaatRa MeryAmon, Life, Power, Health, the Great God, in praising His father, this noble God, Atum, Lord of the Two Lands of Heliopolis, Ra-Harakhty:

“Praise to You, Ra-Atum,
Creator of that which is,
Rising in the sky, illuminating this land with His rays.
The Hidden Ones, dwelling in Amente (one of the names of the NetherWorld), turn Their faces to You,
They rejoice to behold Your beauty.
All people jubilate at the sight of You.
You are the One Who created Heaven and Earth,
and You appointed me to be the King over the Two Lands, and Sovereign, Life, Power, Health, on Your Great Throne,
You have given to me all the lands as far as the circuit of the Sun,
and they respect and bow down to my name, as they do to Your name. I was diligent in pursuit of benefactions and numerous great deeds for Your Temple (at On-Heliopolis).

[then follows a long list of the sacred buildings, offerings, and gifts dedicated by the Glorious King Ramses III to Ra-Harakhty, Atum, Iusaas, Hathor Nebethetep, and all the Gods of On-Heliopolis (…)]

Complete You for me the mighty deeds, which I did for You, O father.
I have reached Amente, like Osiris: grant that I may receive offerings, which come forth before You, that I may smell incense and myrrh like Your Divine Ennead.
Grant that Your radiance may bathe my head daily, that my soul may live and behold You at early morning.
Do You the desire of my heart, o Noble Father, for I was a benefactor of Your spirit-ka while I was upon Earth. Hear my petition, do that which I say, which Gods and men announce to You: establish my son (Ramses IV) to be King, as Lord of the Two Lands, that He may rule the Two Lands, like You, as Sovereign, Life, Power, Health, in Egypt:
Horus UserMaatRa SetepenAmon (Ramses IV), Life, Power, Health, Whom You have chosen for Yourself, to be Heir, to magnify Your name. Place the White Crown and the Divine Couble Crown upon His head, like as You were crowned upon Earth, as Horus the Wearer of the Double Diadem. Make sound His every limb, make to flourish His bones and His eyes, flourishing in beholding the Love of millions. Make His duration upon Earth like the Pole Star, ready like a mighty bull, seizing the Two Lands. Give to Him the Nine Bows (the traditional enemies of Egypt), united under His two feet, saluting His name, while His sword is over them.
You are the One Who created Him, when He was a child, You appointed Him to be the Hereditary Prince upon the Double Throne of Geb. You said: ‘Let Him become King upon the Throne of Him Who begat Him’.
The things which You had ordered, they come to pass, abiding, and established. Give to Him a great and prolonged reign, and jubilees great and mighty, like the God of the Primaeval Mound, the King of Upper and Lower Egypt Lord of the Two Lands UserMaatRa SetepenAmon, Life, Power, Health, the Son of Ra and Lord of Diadems Ramses (IV) HeqaMaat-MeryAmon, Life, Power, Health!”


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