the Goddess Isis wearing the vulture-cap with the Uraeus and the Solar disk with two feathers and two uraei; detail from the Chapel of the Goddess Isis in the “Hall of the Mysteries” of the “Great Temple” of King Sethi I at Abydos
the name of the Goddess Isis written in hieroglyphics:
whose egyptian pronunciation preserved in Coptic and attested in the Greek transliterations is
“Ise”/”Isi” [the stress falls on the first ‘i’; both the ‘i’ are pronounced as pure vowels like the ‘i’ of the english word “king”]
Concerning the pronunciation “Aset/Auset”, it is simply a conventional reading invented by the scholars and it does not reflect the real pronunciation of the Egyptian language (as it is written at the beginning of every grammar of hieroglyphs).
Detail from the “Great Temple” of King Sethi I at Abydos
-THE ARETALOGY OF THE GODDESS ISIS FROM KYME (AEOLIS)-
“Demetrios son of Artemidoros, also known as Thraseas, of Magnesia on the river Maeander, fulfilled His vow to Isis. The following was copied from a stone tablet in the city of Memphis, which stood near the Temple of Hephaestos (Ptah):
I am Isis, the Queen of every land, it is I Who was taught by Hermes (Thoth), and Who, with Hermes, invented writing, both hieroglyphics and the cursive script so that not every text might be written in the same style of script.
It is I Who gave Laws for mankind, and ordained what no one can change.
I am the eldest daughter of Kronos (Geb).
I am the wife and sister of King Osiris.
It is I Who am the discoverer of crops for mankind.
I am the Mother of Horus the King.
I am the one who rises in the Dog-Star (Sirius/Sothis).
It is I Who am called “the Goddess” by women.
It is by me that the city of Boubasti was built.
It is I Who divided Earth from Heaven.
It is I Who showed the courses of the Stars.
It is I Who ordered the course of the Sun and the Moon.
It is I Who discovered maritime trade.
It is I Who made Justice strong.
It is I Who joined woman and man together.
It is I Who appoint to women to bring into light their infants in the ninth month.
It is I Who ordained that parents should be loved by children.
It is I Who laid punishment upon those who have no natural affection toward their parents.
It is I Who together with my brother Osiris put an end to cannibalism.
It is I Who revealed to the mortals the initiation into the Mysteries.
It is I Who taught to revere the images of the Gods.
It is I Who established the Temples of the Gods.
It is I Who dissolved the unrighteous governments.
It is I Who ended murders.
It is I Who compelled women to be loved by men.
It is I Who made Righteousness to be stronger than gold and silver.
It is I Who ordained that Righteousness and Truth should be thought to be the Good.
It is I Who devised marriage contracts.
It is I Who assigned to Greeks and barbarians their languages.
It is I Who made a distinction in nature between the Beautiful and the shameful.
It is I Who ordained that nothing should be more feared than an oath.
It is I Who have delivered him who unjustly plots against others into the hands of the one against whom he plotted.
It is I Who impose retribution upon those who do injustice.
It is I Who decreed that mercy be shown to suppliants.
I honor those who justly defend themselves.
With me the righteous has power.
I am the Queen of rivers and winds and sea.
No one is honored without my consent.
I am the Lady of war.
I am the Lady of the thunderbolt.
I calm the sea and make it surge.
I am in the rays of the Sun.
I attend the Sun in its journey.
What I decree, that is also accomplished.
All yield to me.
I set free those who are in bonds.
I am the Queen of seamanship.
I make the navigable unnavigable, whenever I so decide.
It is I Who founded the enclosure-walls of the cities.
I am called the Lawgiver (Thesmophòros)
It is I Who raised up islands out of the dephts into the light.
I am the Queen of rainstorms.
I conquer Destiny,
and Destiny obeys me.
Hail O Egypt that nourished me!”
“I, Isis, the Sole Eternal Tyrant,
look upon the limits of the Earth and Sea,
and I look upon them holding the sceptre and being One”
“ἐγὼ τύραννος Εἶσις αἰῶνος μόνη
πόντου τε καὶ γῆς τέρμονάς τ’ ἐπιβλέπω
καὶ σκῆπτρ’ ἔχουσα καὶ μί’ οὖσ’ ἐπιβλέπω”
(from the Kyrene Aretalogy of Isis)
-LITANY OF THE DIVINE NAMES OF THE GODDESS ISIS IN THE REGIONS AND CITIES OF EGYPT, IN THE EUROPEAN-MEDITERRANEAN WORLD AND IN ASIA-
from the Oxyrhynchos papyrus 1380, dated to the II century CE
“I invoke Thee, O Goddess, . . . .
Who at . . . . art called . . . . (probably “Good, Solace”),
in the House of Hephaestus-Ptah (at Memphis) ‘…chmeunis’,
Who at …ophis (in the I nome of Lower Egypt) art called ‘Bubastis’,
at Letopolis Megale (Sḫm-“Sìm”, in the II nome of Lower Egypt), One,
at Aphroditopolis (Ḥw.t-Ḥr-byk-“Hatarbechi”, in the IV nome of Lower Egypt) in the Prosopite Nome, Fleet-Commanding, Many-Shaped, Aphrodite,
in the Delta (in Lower Egypt), Giver of Favours,
at Kalamisis (in the western Delta), Gentle,
at Karene (in the IV nome of Lower Egypt), Affectionate,
at Nikiou (in the IV nome of Lower Egypt) , Immortal, Benevolent,
at Hierasos (in the western Delta) ‘…athroichis’,
at Momemphis (III nome of Lower Egypt), Sovereign,
at Psochemis (in Lower Egypt), She Who leads to the harbor,
at Mylon (in the northwestern Delta), Sovereign,
at Ke…kulemis (near Hermopolis Mikra in the III nome of Lower Egypt or near Naukratis) ‘….tes’ ,
at Hermopolis (VI or III nome of Lower Egypt), She of beautiful form, Sacred,
at Naukratis (V nome of Lower Egypt), Fatherless, Euphrosyne (Joy), Savior, Almighty, Most Great,
at Nithine in the Gynaecopolite Nome (III nome of Lower Egypt), Aphrodite,
at Pephremmis-Papremis (in Lower Egypt), Isis, Sovereign, Hestia, Lady of every country,
at Chnou . . . .
at Es… (near Buto), Hera, Divine,
at . . . . ,
at Buto (VI nome of Lower Egypt), Skilled in calculation, . . . .
at Thonis (III nome of Lower Egypt), Love of the Gods,
in the Saite Nome (V nome of Lower Egypt), Victorious Athena, Nymph,
at Nebeo (in the Saite Nome) ‘….is’ ,
at Kaene, Euphrosyne (Joy),
at Sais, Hera, Sovereign, Perfect,
at Iseion (central or eastern Delta), Isis,
at Sebennytos (XII nome Lower Egypt), Inventiveness, Lady, Hera, Holy,
at Hermopolis (XVI nome of Lower Egypt), Aphrodite, Queen, Holy,
at Diospolis Mikra (XVII nome of Lower Egypt), Sovereign,
at Bubastis (XVIII nome of Lower Egypt), She of Old,
at Heliopolis (XIII nome of Lower Egypt), Aphrodite,
(Who) at Athribis (Ḥw.t-ḥry-ỉb/Ḥw.t-tȝ-ḥry-ỉb, in the 10th Lower Egyptian nome), (art called) Maia, Supporter,
at Hiera in the Phthemphuthite Nome (in the 21st Lower Egyptian nome), Lotus-Bearing,
at Teouchis (in Lower Egypt), Sacred, Lady,
among the Boukoli (“Boukolikon” is the name of one of the mouths of the Nile) , Maia,
at Xois (Ḫȝswwt/Ḫȝsw, in the 6th Lower Egyptian nome), She of Old, Oracular,
at Apis (Apieion, Tȝ-s.t-n-Ḥp/Tȝ-s.t-Ḥp-ʿnḫ/Ḥw.t-Ḥp-ʿnḫ, in the 1st Lower Egyptian nome), Understanding,
at Leukce Akte (Lower Egypt, Western coast), Aphrodite,
She of Mouchis (Pr-mḫy/Pr-mḫ/Pȝ-mwḫys in the Arsinoite nome),
Isis Who makes a good name,
at Phagroriopolis (Pr-grr/Pȝy-krr, “house of the frog”, in the eastern Delta) . . . . ,
at Choatine (in the southeastern Delta), Victorious,
at . . . . , Skilled in Writing, . . . .
at Kynopolis in the Busirite Nome (9th Lower Egyptian nome), Praxidike (the Exacter of Justice),
at Busiris (Pr-Wsỉr, in the 9th Lower Egyptian nome), Fortune, Good,
at Hermopolis (Bʿḥ/Pr-Ḏḥwty-wp-rḥ.wy) in the Mendesian Nome (16th Lower Egyptian nome), Leader,
at Pharbaethos (Pr-Ḥr-mr.ty, in the 19th Lower Egyptian nome), Of Beautiful Form,
at Isidion in the Sethroite Nome (14th Lower Egyptian nome), Saviour,
at Herakleopolis (Pr-Ḥry-šf-nb-Nn-nsw) in the Sethroite Nome, Lady,
at Phernouphis (in the 16th Lower Egyptian nome), Ruler of Cities,
at Leontopolis (Tȝ-rmw, in the 11th Lower Egyptian nome), Serpent, Good,
at Tanis (Tʿny, in the 19th Lower Egyptian nome), Of Gracious Form, Hera,
at Schedia (in the 7th Lower Egyptian nome), Inventiveness,
at Herakleon (near Alexandria), Lady of the Sea,
at Kanopos (in the 3rd Lower Egyptian nome), Leader of the Muses,
at Menouthis (in the 3rd Lower Egyptian nome), Truth,
at Meniouis (in Lower Egypt), Seated Before Io in Whose Honor . . . . is founded,
at M…nestion (in Lower Egypt), Most Great, Vulture-Sharped, Aphrodite,
at Taposiris (Taposiris Megale in the western coast or Taposiris Mikra in the 3rd Lower Egyptian nome), Thauestis, Hera, Giver,
in the Island (Pharos, Alexandria), Swiftly-Victorious,
at Peukestis (near Alexandria), Pilot,
at Melais (to be identified with Menelais in the 7th Lower Egyptian nome or with Menelaos in the 3rd Lower Egyptian nome), Many-Formed,
at Menouphis (in Lower Egypt), Warlike,
in the Metelite Nome (7th Lower Egyptian nome), Kore,
at Charax (near Alexandria), Athena,
at Plinthine (near Taposiris Megale in the western coast), Hestia,
at Pelousion (Pr-ỉr-Ỉmn/’Whom Amon has made’, in the 14th Lower Egyptian nome, northeastern Delta, near the Mediterranean), Bringer To Harbor,
in the Kasian District (northern sinai), Tachnepsis,
at the Outlet, Isis, Preserver,
(Who) in Arabia Felix (art called) Great Goddess,
in the Island (the “Sacred Island of Isis on the west coast of Arabia), Giver of Victory in Sacred Games,
in Lycia, Leto,
at Myra in Lycia, Sage, Freedom,
at Cnidus, Dispeller of Attack, Discoverer,
at Cyrene, Isis,
in Crete, Dictynnis,
at Chalcedon, Themis,
at Rome, Warlike,
in the Cyclades Islands, She Of Threefold Nature, Artemis,
at Patmos, Young, . . . .
at Paphos, Hallowed, Divine, Gentle,
in Chios, Marching,
at Salamis, Observer,
in Cyprus, All-Bounteous,
in Chalcidice, Holy,
in Pieria, Youthful,
in Asia, Worshipped at the Three Ways,
at Petra, Saviour,
at Hypsele, Most Great,
at Rhinocolura, All-Seeing,
at Dora, Friendship,
at Stratonos Pyrgos, Hellas, Good,
at Ascalon, Mightiest,
at Sinope, Many-Named,
at Raphia, Queen,
at Tripolis, Supporter,
at Gaza, Abundant,
at Delphi, Best, Fairest,
at Bambyce, Atargatis,
among the Thracians and in Delos, Many-Named,
among the Amazons, Warlike,
among the Indians, Maia,
among the Thessalians, Moon,
among the Persians, Latina,
among the Magi, Kore, Thapseusis,
at Susa, Nania (Nanaia),
in Syrophoenicia, The Goddess,
in Samothrace, Bull-Faced,
at Pergamum, Queen,
in Pontus, Immaculate,
in Italy, Love of the Gods,
in Samos, Sacred,
at the Hellespont, Mystic,
at Myndus, Divine,
in Bithynia, Helen,in Tenedos, Name of the Sun,
in Caria, Hekate,
in the Troad and at Dindyma, . . . . , Palentra, Unapproachable, Isis,
at Berytus, Maia,
at Sidon, Astarte,
at Ptolemais, Understanding,
at Susa in the District of the Red Sea, Sarkounis.
Thou Who interpretest first of all in the the Fifteen Thesmoi (the sacred divine laws of Isis),
Queen and Ruler of the World!”
-HYMN TO THE GODDESS ISIS REGINA (QUEEN)-
III Hymn to the Goddess Isis from Her Temple at Syene (Aswan)
“O Princess, Daughter of Geb,
Ruler of the ‘Merehu’ Bull (a form of Osiris),
‘Tjati’ (Prime Minister) Daughter of Thoth,
Beloved by the Ram,
Great of Favor,
Great of Praise,
Queen of Upper and Lower Egypt,
Lady of Grace,
Lady of all that is encircled by the Sun,
Queen of Upper and Lower Egypt,
Isis the Great, the Mother of the God,
First Royal Spouse of Osiris Onnophris Whose word is right and true,
Divine Mother of Horus, the King, the Mighty Bull.
You are the Beautiful and Perfect Goddess Who has given birth to the Victorious God,
She Who has initiated the Divine Birth of Her son,
the King of Kings, the Prince of Princes:
‘He is Ra!’ it will be said of Him, a King without equals.
In the Sanctuaries there are the cult images of Her elder brother Osiris, the Lord of the nomes,
and His sacred image is where the Gods are;
they come, jubilating, to Him,
He (Osiris) is their Lord, He Who accomplishes everything together with Horus,
and together with Her sister Isis, the guide of Horus without equals,
the beneficial Goddess Who accomplishes everything for Her elder brother.
May Your beautiful face be beneficial to the King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Horus the King (Ptolemy IV) ever living, beloved of Isis, defend and protect Him!”
-HYMN TO THE GODDESS ISIS-
from the Temple of Isis at Syene (Aswan)
“Isis the Vanguard of the Army
Isis, more effective than a million soldiers,
Lady of Flame Who assaults the rebels (the rebels against Maat, the enemies of the Gods)
Lady of Battle Who fought on the River of the Two Lands to overthrown the enemies (the enemies of the Gods are the enemies of the King, Horus on Earth).
Isis Mightier that the Mighty, Stronger than the Strong,
Who smites millions by cutting off their heads,
great of massacre against Her enemy.”
-HYMN TO THE GODDESS ISIS-SOTHIS-
from the Temple of the Goddess Hathor at Nitentore (Dendera), East Crypt 4 (Dendera V-103)
“Sothis in the Seat of the Beautiful One (Hathor),
the Youthful One Whose manifestation is hidden from the Powerful-Ones,
the Great One in the Sky, and the Powerful One on Earth, there is no nome without Her name,
She Who inspires a great awe in all the cities,
She Who hides Her form from Gods and human beings,
the Queen of Egypt, She Who glorifies Her brother (Osiris), She Who places Her son (Horus) on the Throne of His father (to be) the King of the Two Lands,
She Who preserves the Sacred Places where there are His brother and His son,
the Queen and the Lady of the Throne inside the Palace, no one enters the Palace without Her knowing,
the Queen and the Lady of the Two Lands,
the Queen of the burial, She Who gives the cloth to the Naked One (Osiris),
the Unique Goddess, the crowd loves You, there is no one who acts like You,
the Great One in the Sky, and the Powerful One on Earth, no one enters the Palace without Her knowing,
Sothis the Great One,
the Lady of the Sacred Places, this is Her Horizon of the Eternity’s Horizon,
She establishes Herself here,
She shines here like He of the Horizon in the Horizon,
She gives thanks to Her city,
Her heart is glad, all the Gods of Her Divine Ennead are in ecstasy,
She glorifies the Kingship of Her beloved son, the Son of Ra, the Lord of Crowns, Horus the King, He is the Falcon established upon the Royal Pavilion at the head of the everliving ‘Ka’-Spirits.”
(see the page dedicated to Ermoute/Ermouthi)